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INTRODUCTION

1. Louis Sheaffer, O’Neill, Son and Playwright (Boston, Mass., 1968), 240. (Hereafter cited as “Sheaffer.”)

2. Robert E. Brennan (ed.), The Algonquin Wits (New York, 1968), 15.

3. Kenneth Tynan, The London Observer, February 2, 1958.

4. Arthur and Barbara Gelb, O’Neill (New York, 1960, 1962), 885. (Hereafter cited as “Gelb.”)

CHAPTER I

1. Sheaffer, 252.

2. Edward Barnes, The Man Who Lived Twice (New York, 1956), 53.

3. Sheaffer, 217.

4. Sheaffer, 311; Croswell Bowen, The Curse of the Misbegotten (New York, 1959), 57. (Hereafter cited as “Bowen.”)

5. Quoted in Bowen, 60.

6. Sheaffer, 290.

7. Bowen, 59.

8. Gelb, 263.

9. Helen Deutsch and Stella Hannau, The Provincetown: A Story of the Theatre (New York, 1931), 15. (Hereafter cited as “Deutsch and Hannau.”)

10. Sheaffer, 232.

11. Bowen, 30.

12. Joseph Conrad, Youth and Two Other Stories, in The Works of Joseph Conrad (London, 1923), XX, xi.

13. Joseph Conrad, The Nigger of the Narcissus, in The Works of Joseph Conrad, VII, 138.

14. Barrett H. Clark, Eugene O’Neill: The Man and His Plays (New York, 1947), 28. (Hereafter cited as “Clark.”)

CHAPTER II

1. Cf. John V. A. Weaver, “I Knew Him When,” The New York World, February 21, 1926. Reprinted in Oscar Cargill, N. Bryllion Fagin and William Fisher, O’Neill and His Plays (New York, 1961), 27. (Hereafter cited as “Cargill.”)

2. Wisner Payne Kinne, George Pierce Baker and the American Theatre (Cambridge, Mass., 1954). Reprinted in Cargill, 19.

3. “Professor G. P. Baker,” The New York Times, January 13, 1935.

4. George Pierce Baker, Dramatic Technique (Boston, Mass., 1919), V. (Hereafter cited as “Baker.”)

5. Baker, iii.

6. Baker, 41.

7. Baker, 308.

8. Baker, 407.

9. Baker, 107.

10. Baker, 509.


CHAPTER III

1. Susan Glaspell, The Road to the Temple (New York, 1927), 218. (Hereafter cited as “Glaspell.”)

2. Glaspell, 252.

3. Glaspell, 245.

4. Glaspell, 264.

5. Edna Kenton, “The Provincetown Players and the Playwright’s Theatre, 1915-1922.” (Unpublished ms, n.d.), 3. (Hereafter cited as “Kenton.”)

6. Glaspell, 216.

7. Kenton, 174; Glaspell, 307.

8. Kenton, 153; Glaspell, 287.

9. Glaspell, 309; Kenton, 197.

10. Quoted in Gelb, 234.

11. Kenton, 47.

12. Glaspell, 254.

13. Cf. Sheaffer, 383.

14. Clark, 56.

15. Sheaffer, 181.

16. Sheaffer, 395.

17. Clark, 58.

18. Clark, 60.

19. Agnes Boulton, Part of a Long Story (Garden City, N.Y., 1958), 319. (Hereafter cited as “Boulton.”)

20. Gelb, 671.

21. Cf. Mary Heaton Vorse, Time and the Town (New York, 1942), 21.

22. Cf. Sheaffer, 203, 335.

23. Joseph Conrad, Tomorrow, in The Works of Joseph Conrad (London, 1923), VII, 262.

CHAPTER IV

1. Boulton, 162, 165.

2. Boulton, 252.

3. Boulton, 214.

4. Boulton, 254.

5. Glaspell, 255.

6. Quoted in Sheaffer, 421.

7. Gelb, 384.

8. Kenton, 105.

9. Cf. Gelb, 539; Sheaffer, 375.

10. Cf. Sheaffer, 374.

11. Cf. Sheaffer, 430.

12. Woollcott’s review appeared on April 4, 1920.

13. Cf. Sheaffer, 209-14, for a summary of the several versions of the episode.

14. In an inscription to the fourth proof of The Emperor Jones, Diff’rent and The Straw, to Miss Mary A. Clarke. In the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. (Hereafter cited as “Beinecke.”)

15. The manuscript of The Straw is in the Princeton University Library.

16. Cf. Sheaffer, 254; Gelb, 236.

17. Quoted in Sheaffer, 464.

18. Unpublished letter, dated November 18, 1919, Stanford University Library, Stanford, Calif.

19. Unpublished letter, Dated March 23, 1920, Stanford University Library.

20. Alexander Woollcott, The New York Times, February 4, 1920.

21. Arthur Hornblow, “Mr. Hornblow Goes to the Play,” Theatre Magazine, March, 1920.

22. Woollcott, The New York Times, February 4, 1920.

23. According to Gilbert Gabriel, The New York American, December 1, 1926.

24. Edward Barnes, The Man Who Lived Twice, 53.

25. Murray’s influence is noted briefly by Sheaffer, 206.

26. T. C. Murray, Birthright (Dublin, 1911), 13.

27. Birthright, 25.

28. Cf. The New York Times, April 11, 1920.

29. Bowen, 88.

30. Edward Sheldon, The High Road (privately printed, 1912), 3.

31. The High Road, 16.

32. Robert Sherwood, The Petrified Forest (New York, 1936), 63.

33. Georges Bataille, Death and Sensuality (New York, 1969).

CHAPTER V

1. Deutsch and Hannau, 71.

2. Gelb, 202; 438.

3.  African Negro Sculpture. Photographed by Charles Sheeler with a preface by Marius de Zayas. (Privately printed, n.d.).

4. Cf. Peer Gynt, V, vii.

5. Cf. Peer Gynt, V, v.

6. Cf. Moss Hart, Act One (New York, 1959), 96 ff.

7. Quoted in Gelb, 450.

8. James Forbes, The Travelling Salesman (New York, 1908), 47.

9. Quoted in Gelb, 437.

10. The manuscript is in the Princeton University Library.

11. O’Neill’s account of the production of Chris is in his letters to George Jean Nathan reprinted in Isaac Goldberg, The Theatre of George Jean Nathan (New York, 1926), 146-56.

12. Cf. Louis Kalonyme, “O’Neill lifts Curtain on His Earlier Days,” The New York Times, December 21, 1924.

13. Louis V. De Foe, in The New York World, November 3, 1921.

14. Cf. Arthur Hornblow, “Mr. Hornblow Goes to the Play,” Theatre Magazine, January, 1922. Also an unsigned article, “Mr. O’Neill’s New Play,” The New York Daily Mirror, December 7, 1921.

15. Cf. O’Neill’s letter in defense of “Anna Christie” in The New York Times, December 18, 1921.

16. The Theatre of George Jean Nathan, 154.

17. The Theatre of George Jean Nathan, 155.

CHAPTER VI

1. Sheldon Cheney, The New Movement in Theatre (New York, 1914-15), 15. (Hereafter cited as “Cheney.”)

2. Cheney, 16.

3. Cheney, 16.

4. Cheney, 92.

5. Cheney, 213.

6. Cheney, 269.

7. Cheney, 123.

8. Cheney, 278.

9. Cheney, 102.

10. Kenneth Macgowan, The Theatre of Tomorrow (New York, 1921), 224. (Hereafter cited as “Macgowan.”)

11. Macgowan, 248.

12. Macgowan, 265.

13. Macgowan, 218.

14. Macgowan, 228.

15. Kenneth Macgowan and Robert Edmond Jones, Continental Stagecraft New York, 1922), 5. (Hereafter cited as “Macgowan and Jones.”)

16. Macgowan and Jones, 6.

17. Macgowan and Jones, 38.

18. Macgowan and Jones, 39.

19. Macgowan and Jones, 66.

20. O’Neill to Macgowan, August 9, 1921 (Beinecke).

21. O’Neill to Macgowan, March 29, 1921 (Beinecke).

22. O’Neill to Macgowan, n.d. Probably summer, 1923 (Beinecke).

23. O’Neill to Macgowan, n.d. Probably late summer, 1923 (Beinecke).

24. Macgowan and Jones, 221.

25. Quoted in Gelb, 520.

26. Quoted in Gelb, 545. See further, Egil Tornqvist, A Drama of Souls, Uppsala, Sweden, 1968, 182.

27. The Provincetown Playbill, January 3, 1924. Quoted in Deutsch and Hannau, 191.

28. Quoted in Gelb, 555. For the censorship furor, cf. Gelb, 548 if.

29. Noted by Gelb, 10.

30. Eugene O’Neill, Desire Under the Elms, The Fountain (Wilderness Edition, New York, 1935), IX, xi. See also O’Neill’s correspondence with Oliver Saylor, July 2, 1924 (Beinecke).

31. Gelb, 539.

32. Cf. A Drama of Souls, 261, note 37.

33. Sidney Howard to Barrett H. Clark, December 16, 1924. The Sidney Howard Papers are in the Bancroft Library of the University of California at Berkeley.

34. Gelb, 571.

35. Friedrich Nietzsche, The Birth of Tragedy, tr. William A. Haussmann (London, 1909), 26.

36. The Birth of Tragedy, 27.

37. The Birth of Tragedy, 121.

38. The Birth of Tragedy, 42.

39. The Birth of Tragedy, 41.

CHAPTER VII

1. Cf. Alexander Woollcott in The New York Sun, April 12, 1924.

2. The Revelation of John the Divine, 390A.

3. The Revelation of John the Divine, 413A

4. The New York Sun, April 24, 1924.

5. The New York Sun, April 7, 1924.

6. George Jean Nathan, “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner,” The American Mercury. June, 1924. Reprinted in Cargill, 166.

7. Macgowan, 262.

8. Macgowan, 238-43.

9. The New York News, December 11, 1925.

10. George Cram Cook, The Spring (New York, 1921), 52.

11. Macgowan, 245.

12. Quoted in Gelb, 470.

13. Cf. Stark Young’s review in The New Republic, December 30, 1925. Quoted in Cargill, 172.

14. Gelb, 468.

15. Quoted in Gelb, 471.

16. Quoted in Gelb, 591.

17. Sheaffer, 389.

18. The Saturday Evening Post, September 14, 1918, 93-4.

19. Quoted in Clark, 85.

20. Macgowan, 257.

21. Macgowan, 261.

22. Macgowan, 263.

23. Lee Simonson, The Stage Is Set (New York, 1932), 38.

24. Lee Simonson, “Moving Marco,” The New York Times, January 22, 1928.

25. Cf. Gelb, 352.

26. “A Letter from Eugene O’Neill,” The New York Times, April 11, 1920.

27. A discussion of these plays may be found in an unpublished doctoral dissertation, “Strindberg’s Wander Plays” by Jules L. Zentner, University of California, Berkeley, June, 1964.

28. O’Neill to Macgowan, September 2, 1925 (Beinecke).

29. Telegram, O’Neill to Macgowan, September 5, 1925 (Beinecke).

30. O’Neill to Macgowan, September 28, 1925 (Beinecke).

31. O’Neill to Macgowan, August 23, 1926 (Beinecke).

32. Unidentified clipping in the Provincetown Theatre Scrapbooks, The New York Public Library Theatre Collection.

33. Both reviews appeared on January 25, 1926.

34. “Memoranda on Masks,” The American Spectator, November, 1932; “Second Thoughts,” The American Spectator, December, 1932; “A Dramatist’s Notebook,” The American Spectator, January, 1933. Reprinted in Cargill, 116-22.

35. Cf. Cargill, 118.

36. Cf. Cargill, 118.

37. Cf. Cargill, 121.

38. O’Neill explained his scheme in a letter printed in The New York Post, February 13, 1926. Reprinted in Clark, 104.

39. Clark, 105.

40. Clark, 105.

41. The Birth of Tragedy, 86.

42. The Birth of Tragedy, 10.

43. The Birth of Tragedy, 30.

44. The credo is in a letter to George Jean Nathan, published in The American Mercury, XVI (January, 1929), 119. See below, 321.

45. Macgowan and Jones, 163.

46. The Provincetown Playbill, April, 1924. Quoted in Donald Gallup, “Eugene O’Neill’s The Ancient Mariner,” Yale University Library Gazette, XXV, 2 (October, 1960).

47. Quoted in Gelb, 6o2.

48. Friedrich Nietzsche, Thus Spake Zarathustra, tr. Thomas Common. In The Complete Works of Friedrich Nietzsche, ed. Dr. Oscar Levy (New York, 1916), 266.

49. Macgowan and Jones, 221.

CHAPTER VIII

1. O’Neill to Joseph Wood Krutch, June 10 and July 15, 1927 (Beinecke).

2. “Memoranda on Masks,” The American Spectator, November, 1932. Reprinted in Cargill, 116.

3. “Second Thoughts,” The American Spectator, December, 1932. Reprinted in Cargill, 119.

4. The letter is published in Inscriptions: Eugene O’Neill to Carlotta Monterey O’Neill.

5. Cf. Gelb, 638.

6. O’Neill to Krutch, June 11, 1929 (Beinecke).

7. O’Neill to Benjamin de Casseres, March 12, 1929 (Beinecke).

8. Henry Adams, The Education of Henry Adams (Boston and New York, 1918), 380.

9. The Education of Henry Adams, 384.

10. O’Neill to de Casseres, September 16, 1928 (Beinecke).

11. O’Neill to Eleanor Fitzgerald, May 13, 1929 (Beinecke).

12. Gelb, 783.

13. Moeller’s notes are contained in an unpublished memorandum in the Stanford University Library. They are dated January 1, 1934, and were made during the Boston tryouts of Days Without End.

14. The scenarios are in Beinecke. They are quoted in Doris Falk’s valuable study, Eugene O’Neill and the Tragic Tension (New Brunswick, N.J., 1958), 150.

15. In The New York Post, January 9, 1934. Reprinted in Jordan Y. Miller, Playwright’s Progress (Chicago, Ill., 1965), 80.

CHAPTER IX

1. O’Neill to Eleanor Fitzgerald, May 13, 1929 (Beinecke).

2. “O’Neill’s Own Story of ‘Electra’ in the Making,” New York Herald Tribune, November 3, 1931. Reprinted in Barrett H. Clark, European Theories of the Drama, revised edition (New York, 1947).

3. George Jean Nathan, The Intimate Notebooks of George Jean Nathan, 195.

4. Clark, 136.

5. Gelb, 596.

6. Kenneth Macgowan, What Is Wrong with Marriage? (New York, 1929), 152.

7. What Is Wrong with Marriage?, 167.

8. Gelb, 762.

9. Gelb, 741.

10. Cf. in the order quoted, Clark, 137; Croswell Bowen, “The Black Irishman” (PM, November 3, 1946; reprinted in Cargill, 67); and Hamilton Basso, “The Tragic Sense” (The New Yorker, March 6, 1948).

11. Sheaffer, 101.

CHAPTER X

1. Eugene O’Neill, Work Diary, ed. Donald Gallup. 2 vols. (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Library, 1981), entry for Jan. 11, 1933.

2. Helen Christine Bennett, “Kate Gleason’s Adventures in a Man’s Job,” The American Magazine CVI (October, 1828), 4, and Dictionary of American Biography, vol. 21, supplement one (New York, 1944).

3. Eugene O’Neill, The Calms of Capricorn, ed. Donald Gallup (New Haven, Conn., 1982). Dr. Gallup developed the scenario into dramatic form and published it as a second volume to his edition.

4. Sheaffer, 165.

5. O’Neill’s meticulous attention to the details of these models is documented in his correspondence with their maker. The original drafts of O’Neill’s letters to Donald Pace, the model builder, are in the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Collection, Yale University, New Haven.

6. See above p. 338.

7. In the Provincetown Playbill for The Spook Sonata. See above p. 187.

8. In More Stately Mansions, 21.

9. A Touch of the Poet, 84.

10. Lawrence Langner, The Magic Curtain (London, 1952), 405.

11. From an interview in the New York Herald Tribune, March 16, 1924. Reprinted in Cargill, 110.

12. Cf. Helen Muchnic, “Circe’s Swine: Plays by Gorky and O’Neill,” Cormparative Literature, III (spring 1951), 119. Reprinted in Cargill, 431.

13. Unpublished notes for Lazarus Laughed (Beinecke).

14. Seymour Peck, “A Talk with Mrs. O’Neill, The New York Times, November 4, 1956. Reprinted in Cargill, 93.

15. Gelb,6.

16. Cf. Sheaffer, 241.

17. Sheaffer, 240.

18. Gelb, 596.

19. Sheaffer, 85.

20. Sheaffer, 101.

21. Sheaffer, 102.

22. Otto Rank, The Double, A Psychoanalytic Study. Tr. and ed. by Harry Tucker, Jr. (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1971).

23. Gelb, 531.

24. Gelb, 362; Sheaffer, 435.

25. The Magic Curtain, 402.

26. Cf. Mary Welch, “Softer Tones for Mr. O’Neill’s Portrait,” Theatre Arts, May, 1957. Reprinted in Cargill, 85.

27. The Magic Curtain, 409.

 

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